Process of decolonisation
Tanzania (previously known as Tanganyika) went through a harsh colonization. With Rwanda fighting on one side and the British still fighting for control in 1890.
Tanzania and Zanzibar join to form one country in 1963. But that came with unification, ethnic disagreements between the two countries. Zanzibar is off the Tanzanian coast (east side). Although Tanzania became independent from Britain in 1961, Zanzibar became independent from Britain in 1963 and some months later joined Tanganyika to form Tanzania.
Nyerere was the first president of Tanzania. He fused all the tribes from Zanzibar and Tanganyika together into one big state, which is now a country. He joined religions and languages, which prevented ethnic problems. Economy was part of this movement. The name for this was Ujamaa, which means togetherness in Swahili. This was commonly known as “African socialism.” (Which was incorrect). Nyerere became president when Tanzania became fully independent. He was democratically elected in 1972. Zanzibar still was able to maintain their own government and Britain acknowledged this. The next elections were held in 1995 and a new president was elected (Mkapa) then again in 2005 when Jakaya Kikwete was elected. . The stability of the country is rising and the standard of living is gradually getting better.
There was no one person wanting to change the way Tanzania was run but lots of groups that slowly pushed Britain out of the country. Tanzania assisted Zanzibar in regaining control of their country.

Tanzania is a republic form of government. The president now is really trying to improve the situation of the country by responding to the needs and aspirations of the people. He is also trying to create a local government so they can assist the people by their own individual roles. Currently there are 25 states. There is a lack of government control in the situations such as the civil services and women’s rights. Women have a disadvantage in almost every subject whether it is education, employment, land credit etc. But Women’s rights have been increasing in parliament. The countries president Mkapa is trying to continue to be more open and have greater freedom of choice and speech and more rights for women. On July 1 1992 the parliament shifted to a multi party parliament. The British then became a major part of the government. The Tanzanians then believed that the parliament was being “rigged” and refused to be defeated. Today there are 13 democratic parties in the parliament. In 1922 there was a protest against whites ruling the parliament in Tanzania. It was over ruled and demolished and that’s when independence began to arise.

The Tanzanian country uses Swahili and English both as there official languages. Swahili being the main or first language and English being the second. But there are a lot of Tanzanians that speak their tribal language as well as Swahili and English. The British made the Tanzanians speak English but it is not the predominant language. Swahili is used in the first seven years of primary school. The religions in Tanzania are Christian, indigenous and Islamic. The Christianity came about when the British colonized the country and sent missionaries to preach in Tanzania. The amount of highways through out the country is standard but the percentage of the paved highways was 5% in 2000. There are many waterways because Tanzania is on the coast and has lake Tanganyika, which shares borders with Rwanda. Tanzania has 123 airports but most are small because they are only local and have a minute amount of planes. The schools are local and 78% of the people in Tanzania are educated. After graduation from high school men are required to do two years of military service. The government supports rural health centres and dispensaries and hospitals. Britain and Tanzania are major trading partners. Religious groups support medical facilities as well as private doctors. When the British ruled over Tanzania the Germans were helping by giving aid money to Tanzania. When Tanzania became independent the Germans ceased all aid to Tanzania and the standard of the country has declined. Tanzania also trades with India, Kenya, Netherlands, Japan, Spain, China, UAE, South Africa, and the U.S. Tanzania exports gold, cashew nuts coffee, and cotton. They import consumer goods, transportation equipment and machinery, crude oil and industrial raw materials.



This is a map of Africa in 1913 when Europe ruled most of Africa. Tanzania is partly ruled by Germany and Britain. Theses previous boarders were more based on natural boarders. Eg. The river and lake Tanganyika form one border on the western side. The Indian Ocean is on the other side. The boarders have changed since the conference. Before the boarder was around Rwanda and Burundi but now they are there own countries. The boarders in some places are still debatable if they are divided in the correct places. Very few ethnic tribes have been split apart but some have been put together and that wasn’t such a good idea because they don’t totally agree. Zanzibar is 22 miles off the mainland.



http://www.lclark.edu/~peck/EAf-Orient/Tanzania/T-independence.htm
Richard Peck (remove "-nospam) peck-nospam@lclark.edu).
http://www.africanet.com/africanet/country/tanzania/history.htm
http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/country/tanzania.html
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108028.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ColonialAfrica.png